text citation must include page numbers like H u m a n i t i e s
Subject : Archaeology
Level of Study : Masters
Target Grade : Masters Distinction
Length: 2500 Words (~10 pages)
Delivery Time : 14 Days
Time for requesting changes : Standard 7 days
Paper instructions : Subject:
Archaeology FILES: https://we.tl/t-S58ARl4cm3
Harvard style, in text citation must include page numbers like (Clarke, 2017, pg.77), figures must be cited.
List references alphabetically by author and date.
UK English – advanced vocabulary and writing style according to universities master’s level
Number of References:
around 20 references
Subheadings for discussion of each point – (8 figures minimum must be included)
Conclusion: brief summary
Deadline to receive this essay:
2500 words (excluding the references page, tables, and figure captions)
Academic level and grade:
Master’s level – distinction
-Please it is important to send me a draft after 1 week exactly so I can
review the essay in advance to avoid any delays with this tight
deadline. Also, please I am having problems to contact you or the writer
with my previous order, please reply back to my
emails or whatsapp texts.
-The essay must be 2500 words (excluding bibliography, illustrations, figure captions).
-Mainly: This essay asks for a close SPECIFIC CRITICAL analysis of
archaeological evidence of two specific case studies relevant to the
topic. Case studies MUST be selected from the suggested list. Select two
specific works that are substantial, choose from
the list two studies that contain specific evidence relevant to the
issue. You will need to investigate other works beyond your two core
readings; other studies must be discussed in relevance to the topic and
critically analyzed. focus on discussing the core
2 studies specifically with detailed critical analysis, figures,
comparison and contrasts of the archaeological evidence. also, refer to
other case studies and, of course, to general readings.
-The main point is interpreting archaeological evidence. Emphasize
primary data (e.g. tables, figures, sample sizes, etc.). Be specific.
-Add 8 figures to explain points. Figure means a drawing, a photo, a
graph, or a table. Give them Figure Numbers & refer to them in the
text. Write captions for each Figure, explaining how the figure
illustrates a point made in your essay. Be sure to put in
the caption the exact source of the Figure.
-Original thinking and critical discussion of evidence &
interpretation are important. The essay MUST include critical analysis
of archaeological evidence, discoveries, and interpretation of primary
-The words count MUST be mostly about the specific arguments relevant to
the topic and critical discussion of the points NOT on general
overviews or definitions as those should be mentioned briefly in few
-From the suggested case studies and other studies; discuss primary
evidence to demonstrate the points and present a critical analysis of
the evidence, evaluate and add STATISTICAL ANALYSIS of data and results,
and present your opinion. Demonstrate different
perspectives about the point and discuss the theory presented by each
scholar, compare and contrast, support your discussion with a reference
of a primary study or evidence.
Imagine that you are a friend of the authors of two case studies. They
have asked you to read their work and suggest improvements. Compare and
contrast two case studies, to show how archaeologists use evidence to
address research questions. Discuss how the
evidence, analysis and interpretations of the authors are affected by:
excavation methods, sampling, stratigraphy, chronology, and site
formation. Are the authors clear about these issues, in making their
points? Would you suggest changes? What would they
Archaeologists often talk about elites, when discussing social change
and political structure – for example, the emergence of states. How is
elite status identified by archaeologists? In burials, it is typically
inferred by looking at variables such as tomb
location; tomb characteristics; tomb size; body treatment; and grave
goods (quantity, diversity, types). “Eliteness” is inferred from
unusually elaborate attributes of these variables – eg, special
locations; built tombs; large tombs; special body treatment;
numerous, elaborate, or prestigious grave goods. Sometimes elite status
is obvious, as with sites where all graves were those of elites buried
in a special place. At other times, it is much less obvious, and
inferences are made according to the range of variation
in the attributes of graves and grave goods. In that situation,
archaeologists identify distributions of attributes. Some
characteristics will be fairly ubiquitous, occurring among nearly all
graves (eg, pit burial, plain pots). Against this background, they
identify graves with characteristics that stand out (eg, elaborate
tombs, exceptional items). Often, we are forced to wonder whether an
“exceptional” burial is an accident of discovery – a sampling problem.
How can we be sure it isn’t an accident? That is
where statistics comes in. Much depends on having a large sample size.
An archaeologist’s frame of reference affects his or her interpretations
of burial evidence; but burials are often the outcome of culturally
specific beliefs and ritual practices very different from our own.
“Eliteness” or “non-eliteness” is not all that is
at work in funerals – not by any means – and does not explain
everything we see.
Read: Orton, C. 2000. Sampling in Archaeology. Cambridge: CUP., Chapter
3: “If this is the sample, what was the population?” In the studies
below, what is the sample size? How is status identified?
Essay Title: Elite Status
Discussion points that MUST be included:
How have archaeologists inferred “elite status” from archaeological evidence?
Illustrate with two case studies. In each, what is the evidence and what methods were used to analyze it?
How were methods and evidence affected by: excavation or survey
strategies, sampling, stratigraphy, chronology, and site formation?
Are there ambiguities in the evidence?
Are interpretations persuasive? Explain.
What changes would you suggest, to improve the studies?
-Those points MUST be discussed with a brief general discussion then a
detailed analyses of the 2 core studies from the list mainly, other
relevant studies must be discussed to answer these questions. 8 figures
must be included and referred to in text to highlight
specific points about these questions. The argument must be backed up
with specific evidence which MUST BE INTERPRETED in terms of sample
size, evaluating significance, complications, limitations, site
formation and primary data analysis from various studies.
Extensive reading and using a wide range of studies to support
arguments, critical analysis and evaluating methods and results, using
case studies as examples to present the techniques used and other
points, use statistical analysis of results of the listed
studies, compare and contrast theories, present the pitfalls and issues
for each point, present your opinion with using specific studies to
back up the points.
List of Suggested Case Studies:
Choose from the list 2 core studies for the main specific discussion and
critical analysis of archaeological evidence. Refer to other studies
relevant to the topic briefly. I have attached most of these articles
and the “Sampling in Archaeology” book. Please
see the attached files.
-Brown, J. A. 1981. ‘The search for rank in prehistoric burials’, in R.
Chapman, I. Kinnes and K. Randsborg (eds), The Archaeology of Death
-Harrington, S., Brookes, S., Semple, S., and Millard, A. 2020. Theatres
of Closure: Exploring Variability in Inhumation Burial in Early
Medieval Britain. Cambridge Archaeological Journal 30(3). 389–412.
< P. R. S. 1978. What do we know about the people buried in the
Royal Cemetery of Ur? Expedition 20 (1): 24-40. < An excellent
analysis of an old dataset.
-Saxe, A.A. 1971. Social Dimensions of Mortuary Practices in a
Mesolithic Population from Wadi Halfa, Sudan. In Brown, J.A. (ed.)
Approaches to the Social Dimensions of Mortuary Practices. Memoirs of
the Society for American Archaeology 25, 39–57.
-Stevenson, A. 2009. Social relationships in predynastic burials. The Journal of Egyptian Archaeology 95, 175–92.
-Tainter, J. A., 1978. Mortuary practices and the study of prehistoric
social systems, in M. B. Schiffer, (ed.), Advances in Archaeological
Method and Theory 1 (New York, 1978), 105–41.
-illustrations MUST be included at least 8 illustrations (tables or
figures) with a caption highlighting specific points and they must be
CITED. Illustrations should not be added randomly, most importantly
figures MUST be critically analyzed to correlate with
the main topic and must be used as evidence to back up the discussion
points of the essay and provide answers to the specific questions in the
essay. Figures must be numbered, refer the reader to the figures within
the text. (not included with the words count).
-be CRITICAL & ANALYTICAL; back up statements with reference to
specific EVIDENCE; assess quality of evidence. This will give weight and
power to your original ideas. Use background on evidence and discussed
the reflected issues.
-Use a wide range of references textbooks and research articles, including primary research articles and analyzing primary data.
-begin with overviews in textbooks (to ensure you have the bigger
picture), then move to thematic works. an extensive reading of research
articles and recent studies about the topic is required.
-Use the attached references in addition to other wide range references (books and research articles), around 20 references.
Please note: Wikipedia and Encyclopedia Britannica are not considered appropriate as major sources for university level writing.
-Be selective choose references relevant to the topic that can backup
answers to the argument points. Use textbooks and review articles for
the discussion, also primary studies that include primary archaeological
studies and evidence analysis to back up the
Please refer the essay to someone with a background in Archaeology as it
is a complex topic requires intensive reading and analysis. Please
contact me anytime if you have any further inquiries.