“ standard operating procedure .” without B u s i n e s s F i n a n c e

“ standard operating procedure .” without B u s i n e s s F i n a n c e

TOPIC: The Effective Change Manager


Given the Corona crisis, what do you think should be added to the perceptual and executive principles of change management? What will change management change before and after COVID-19?

As complementary resources, you can read these articles:

First read these articles:
1. “Guiding Principles for Ethical Change Management
2. “Lewin’s Theory of Change: Applicability of its Principles in a Contemporary Organization

student 1 nailoufar

Firstly, I would like to talk about crisis management and change management.
Crisis Management: Crisis management is defined as the implementation of strategies designed to assist an organization in dealing with a sudden and significant adverse event or as a process that helps an organization deal with uncontrollable and unpredicted events that threaten to harm the organization or its stakeholders. Predicting crises at the business level and planning how to deal with them successfully is known as crisis management. Risk analysis is the first step in crisis management; however, risk management should not be mistaken. The COVID-19 crisis, which began in early 2020, is likely to become a textbook case study in crisis management. Businesses throughout the world had to close their doors. Hundreds of millions of workers were sent home. Essential services failed to keep up with demand. The powers-that-be will be judged on how adept they are at crisis management in the future (Hayes, 2021).

Change management: According to a research study conducted by Hashim (2013), illustrated that change management is related to organizational change that is related to its process, mission, vision, or policies. Technically it can be a strategy or systematic approach to tackling the transition or transformation of organization goals, processes, or technologies. Change management is essential in a company’s growth because it provides stability by analyzing internal and external changes. It also serves as a firm foundation for the value and reputation of the company. In addition, the company concern’s profit should be maximized. Change management also offers the company a good culture, a healthy operating system, and top-down techniques to assist and promote a culture where staff carries out their tasks quickly and effectively. This also serves as a foundation for human resource managers to build training and development programs to help existing employees meet the organization’s needs.

The COVID 19 crisis taught the organization that crisis and change might coincide. As a result of the crisis, many businesses have had to rethink their strategies and adapt their technology to deal with the issue. One of the most significant changes brought about by the crisis is reducing the number of people living in their homes. Now the company will have to consider adopting technological changes that will allow their employees to work from home. The only commonality is that these changes are being made in response to the crisis and that the crisis has caused the organization to think in this manner. As a result, both have been aroused. Only by adopting changes that will make an organization ready for any further degradation can this incident be addressed. As a result, the terms crisis and change management can be used interchangeably in this context. Successful change management can assist in the prevention of crises. When change management attempts fail, crisis management is frequently required. In organizational change management policies, a crisis is considered the initial phase. Change is usually a deliberate movement, whereas crises are not, although both were unforeseen in this case. Both become complimentary in this situation (Alas & Gao, 2012).
According to Burton & O’Neill (2020), While many firms have an organizational change management (OCM) program focused on technical components, concentrating and refining their contingency plans and business continuity best practices around their people can assist them in traversing this new working culture while maintaining productivity. Businesses should focus on the larger picture. Although tactics may need to be changed, keeping focused on the broader view is essential for company success. It is necessary to create new virtual dashboards to track project or team progress, hold online status meetings and brainstorming sessions, or leverage various collaboration technologies to facilitate distance communication. Stay adaptable and supportive of project teams and impacted team members in any situation. Creating a structured communication format and establishing expectations for remote work will help individuals stay focused and productive during pandemic times. Employees can benefit from training and development, such as virtual team management coaching and collaborative management, which can help them pivot, embrace new working methods, and work more efficiently.
It is recommended that proposed change management practices be implemented rapidly and at all levels: 1-Having a clear vision and communicating it. 2- At the executive level, changing mental processes. 3- To ensure a smooth transition, begin with managers before moving on to workers. 4- Use the timing to your advantage: before, during, and after Covid-19. 5- Changing the culture is an excellent way to start. 6- Acting your way into new ways of thinking is a great approach to form. 7-The key to successful change management is communication. Internal communication is even more critical now to convey the sudden changes resulting from Covid-19 so that workers, particularly those working remotely, can comprehend the new tactics and modify their work accordingly (Somani, 2021).


Hayes, A. (2021, December 7). Crisis management definition. Investopedia. Retrieved December 13, 2021, from Hashim, M. (2013). Change management. International Journal of Academic Research in Business and Social Sciences, 3(7). https://doi.org/10.6007/ijarbss/v3-i7/92

Alas, R., & Gao, J. (2012). Crisis Management, change management, and Innovation Management. Crisis Management in Chinese Organizations, 74–92. https://doi.org/10.1057/9780230363168_7

Burton, P., & O’Neill, K. (2020, April 10). Charting a crisis: Bolstering business continuity with organizational change management. TEKsystems. Retrieved December 14, 2021, from Somani, N. (2021, November 19). Seven best organizational change management strategies due to Covid. Peoplebox. Retrieved

December 14, 2021, from https://

student 2 tinuke

Given the Corona crisis, what do you think should be added to the perceptual and executive principles of change management? What will change management change before and after COVID-19?

Change is unavoidable in all organizations regardless of organizational size, age, or industry. The biosphere is fast changing. Organizations need to adapt to this change quickly. The result can be fulfilling. The organizations that make it through change well succeed, whereas those organizations that are not able to tend to struggle in their existence and sometimes become extinct. To successfully measure how change can be managed in organizations varies widely depending on the type of the sector, the type of change, the top management, and the lower cadre staff who will do the task and know the problems of the company, they are the ones who are involved in the change. Using any pattern of change is useful since it will offer the leaders a roadmap to follow and the capability to ascertain the probable outcome. (Michie & Johnston, 2012). One important theory is Lewin’s theory. Lewin’s theory of change is one of the pillars that assist individuals to better understand organizational change. (Kritsonis, 2005).

Kurt Lewin established the theory in 1951, but it is still very relevant. This theory is commonly called the ‘Unfreeze-Change-Refreeze’ as described by Lewin. Lewin was not just a physicist but also a social scientist who allowed him to explain organizational change by the use of an ice block changing shape analogy.The change theory has three major concepts these include driving forces, restraining forces, and equilibrium. Driving forces can be described as those that push in a direction that causes change to occur. They facilitate change because they push in the desired direction. Restraining forces are described as those forces that counter the driving forces. They hinder change because they push in the opposite direction. They cause a shift in the balance that opposes change. Unfreezing is the process that involves creating a method of making individuals let go of an old pattern that was in a way counterproductive. It is crucial to overcome the strains of individual resistance and group conformity. There are three pillars that can lead to achieving unfreezing. The first is to increase the driving forces that direct behaviour away from the status quo. Second, decrease the restraining forces that negatively affect the movement. Thirdly, finding a combination of the first and second methods.The change stage, which is also called “moving to a new level” or “movement,” involves a process of change in thoughts, feeling, behaviour, or all three, that is in some way more liberating or more productive. The refreezing stage is establishing the change as the new habit so that it now becomes the “standard operating procedure.” Without this final stage, it can be easy for the organization to go back to old habits. (Wojciechowski et al., 2016). The fire for change can be burnt out if the change is not effectively established.

image (Wojciechowski, et al., 2016).

Prior to covid, the organizations did not come under pressure as now. After covid, organizations need to strategically build a framework for communication and business continuity. Most organizations will be expected to perform as they were prior to the pandemic. There is a shift; they have to play catch up but will have to do it differently through virtual and remote management.There is a need to review their business continuity plan in place to make sure it covers all the needs of the organization. This includes understanding how to make decisions with uncertainty. There is a need to grasp the best approach to maintain focus on execution, collaborate and communicate remotely, and keep the business going.To do this, organizations need to ensure their business strategy incorporates crisis management. They ought to have disaster recovery and risk management in order to adapt and get back on track to true business efforts. Organizations need to understand how the employees will be impacted in particular lower levels. The lower-level staff gets the job done, and most do not have a voice. There must be a listening ear by the top management. Now there must be a synergy between the lower cadre and upper cadre of the organization if there will be any real change.


Deborah, O.K. (2018). Lewin’s Theory of Change: Applicability of its Principles in a Contemporary Organization.

Michie S. & Johnston M. (2012), Theories and techniques of behaviour change: Developing a cumulative science of behaviour change, Health Psychology Review Vol. 6, No. 1,16.

Kritsonis, A., & Hills, D. (2005). Comparison of Change Theories. International Journal of Management, Business, And Administration Volume 8, Number 1, 2005.

Nursing (n.d.) Lewin’s Change Theory – Nursing Theory – Nursing Theory. https://nursing-theory.org/theories-and-models/lew…

Wojciechowski, E., Murphy, P., Pearsall, T., French, E., (, 2016) “A Case Review: Integrating Lewin’s Theory with Lean’s System Approach for Change” OJIN: The Online Journal of Issues in Nursing Vol. 21 No. 2, Manuscript 4. DOI: 10.3912/OJIN.Vol21No02Man04

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