severe acute respiratory syndrome coronavirus 2 H u m a n i t i e s

severe acute respiratory syndrome coronavirus 2 H u m a n i t i e s

Topic: Leadership Strategies for Increasing Employee Engagement During COVID-19: A Descriptive Study 

The reason I shared the ppt point wit you is to let you see a snap shot of the study to guide you in writing.

I say that because I will need you to elaborate on information on that powerpoint exactly.

For the gap area, you have to reference my gap articles as well and incorporate that using their recommendations for future studies.

All stated that they saw serious health emergencies that affected countries throughout the world causing psychological risk factors for healthcare workers impacting their health, productivity, and efficiency. It is not known how healthcare supervisors describe the influence of Financial and Psychological rewards on employee engagement during the 2019-21 COVID-19 Pandemic.

Gap: COVID-19 pandemic is a serious health emergency that has affected countries all over the world. Health emergencies are a dire psychosocial risk factor for healthcare workers. In general, psychosocial risks constitute serious problems as they impact workers’ health, productivity, and efficiency.

Topic: Job Satisfaction and Hospital Performance Rated by Physicians in China: A Moderated Mediation Analysis on the Role of Income and Person–Organization Fit

Focus: To test the effect of person–organization fit (P-O fit) in mediating the link between job satisfaction and hospital performance with income as a moderator.

Methodology: Quantitative Study

Design: A cross-sectional survey

Questions:

Location: China

Sample Size: 301 physicians in two tertiary public hospitals

Results: P-O fit was proven to have a positive effect on hospital performance as perceived by the hospital doctors (H1). The effect of job satisfaction on hospital performance was mediated by P-O fit (H2). Income was a moderator for the link between P-O fit and hospital performance and the link between job satisfaction and hospital performance (H3). The link between P-O fit and hospital performance was stronger in those with high-income.

Limitations: This study has several limitations. It adopted a cross-sectional design. No causal relationships should be assumed. The study sample was drawn from two public hospitals in China, which is not representative of the entire hospital sector in China.

Research Recommendations: Although this study was conducted in China, it can offer some lessons to other countries with a similar health reform agenda, in terms of the use of financial and market tools to drive high performance of hospitals.

Topic: The mediating role of perceived organizational support on psychological capital – employee engagement relationship: a study of Indian IT industry

Focus: The importance of psychological capital (PsyCap) and perceived organizational support (POS) have been identified over the years, however, the underlying relationship of both constructs with different employee outcomes is still a subject of research. The purpose of this study is to investigate whether POS helps in mediating the effect of PsyCap on employee engagement (EE).

Methodology: Quantitative

Design:

Questions:

Location: India

Sample Size: In total, 420 samples (middle-level information technology (IT) professionals) were collected from different IT industry located in India by using online survey questionnaires. The collected data were further analyzed using regression analysis, factor analysis, structural equation modeling, reliability and validity analysis, mediation analysis and model fit indices analysis.

Results: The findings of the study con?rmed the full mediating effect of POS on the PsyCap-EE relationship and demonstrated that employees with a higher level of PsyCap, contribute more positively to the POS level which further enhances the employee’s level of engagement at the workplace.

Limitations: The samples collected for the current study included only middle-level IT professionals of the IT industry in India; therefore, the present study results have limited general applicability. The results and findings of the current study are only based on inferential statistical analysis, and descriptive analysis was not performed on the collected data. Further, the study does not investigate the influence of time.

Research Recommendations: Given that the study focused on middle-level IT professionals of the IT industry in India, the study results have limited general applicability. The author recommended performing similar studies with different types of industries and employees so that the ?ndings can be compared and common ?ndings can be identi?ed.

Topic: Impact of Perceived Organizational Support on OCB in the Time of COVID-19 Pandemic in Hungary: Employee Engagement and Affective Commitment as Mediators

Focus: To examine the impact of perceived organizational support on organizational citizenship behavior with the mediating role of employee engagement and affective commitment.

Methodology: Quantitative

Design: Survey. Also, a Structural equation modeling (SEM)

Questions: Hypothesis 1 (H1). There is a positive significant effect of perceived organizational support on employee engagement.

Hypothesis 2 (H2). There is a positive significant effect of perceived organizational support on affective commitment.

Hypothesis 3 (H3). There is a positive significant effect of perceived organizational support on OCB.

Hypothesis 4 (H4). Employee engagement positively influences OCB. 2.9. Affective Commitment and OCB

Hypothesis 5 (H5). Affective commitment positively influences OCB.

Hypothesis 6 (H6). Employee engagement mediates the relationship between POS and OCB.

Hypothesis 7 (H7). Affective commitment mediates the relationship between POS and OCB.

Location:

Sample Size: 380 foreign employees working in different service companies in Hungary participated in the survey.

Results: The results of the study revealed that perceived organizational support positively associated with organizational citizenship behavior and this relationship is also strongly mediated by employee engagement. On the other hand, employee engagement and affective commitment pose a direct positive influence on organizational citizenship behavior. This study has theoretical and practical implications as it will provide a comprehensive framework to better understand the factors influencing the organizational citizenship behavior of the employees.

Limitations: The study did not focus on a particular sector, rather involving employees of different service companies in general. Another limitation is that the study did not consider demographic characteristics to understand the influence of age, gender, work experience on the OCB of the employees. Hence, these characteristics of employees could give a better understanding based on demographic profiles, and future studies can incorporate them in the model. Lastly, future researchers can integrate other variables as well in their study model to provide evidence for different associations during the time of the COVID-19 pandemic.

Research Recommendations: For future studies, researchers can use and modify the proposed research model of this study by adding several other behavioral constructs. This study has focused on positive behavioral outcomes; however, there are negative behavioral outcomes that may be negatively influenced due to POS, like counterproductive behaviors; therefore, future research may focus on such variables.

Topic: Explaining performance in health care: How and when top management competencies make the difference

Focus: The aim of this study was to investigate the relationship between top management competencies, information sharing, and organizational performance in public health care system and to look at the management role in assuring information sharing on organizational strategies to achieve professionals’ engagement. The article analyzes the relationship between top management competencies and the whole organizational performance of health care organizations focusing on the role of information sharing that should support the flow of the strategic and operational vision and engage professionals in enacting their role.

Methodology: Quantitative

Design: longitudinal data of public health care organizations from the Tuscany Region (Italy)

Questions: H1. Managerial competencies are positively associated with organizational performance.

H2. Managerial competencies are positively associated with information sharing.

Location: Tuscany Region (Italy)

Sample Size: 4-year panel data set from 16 public health organizations of the Tuscany Region (Italy), of which 4 are teaching hospitals and 12 are local health authorities.

Results: Findings show that managerial competencies are positively associated to organizational performance. Moreover, managerial competencies are strongly linked to the information sharing process developed into the organizations. Managerial competencies play a significant role on whole performance, and results are mediated using mature information sharing instruments such as benchmarking of performance results.

Limitations: The small sample size (62 observations in total) can yield an influence on the models’ internal validity, so the results should be interpreted with caution. Control for measure reliability was introduced in the posttest analysis using the BreuschYPagan test for heteroskedasticity that showed a low variance of error terms and used robust standard error.

Research Recommendations: Systematic information sharing process regarding performance results, goals, and organizational structure provided by top management seems an effective strategy to engage professionals. Control variables suggest that top management tenure and turnover do not have an effect, whereas bigger health care organizations seem to negatively influence this relation. Future research calls for the expansion of the phenomena of employee engagement in healthcare to describe how leadership affects performance.

•Chen, X.; Liu, M. et al (2020) conducted a questionnaire survey on 301 physicians from two public hospitals in Zhejiang province of China testing the effect of person-organization fit (P-O fit) in mediating the link between job satisfaction and hospital performance with income as a moderator. The findings confirmed the mediating role of P-O fit in the link between job satisfaction of doctors and hospital performance stating that job satisfaction is a fundamental motivator of highly skilled health professionals. The study further demonstrated a greater moderating effect of income on hospital performance through job satisfaction and P-O fit in comparison with its direct link to hospital performance. Given that the study sample was drawn from two public hospitals in China, representative of the entire hospital sector in China nor the U.S. Hence cannot be generalized.

•Vainieri, et al., (2019) conducted a quantitative longitudinal study of 16 healthcare organizations across 4 years to examine the correlation amid senior management competencies, information sharing, and organizational performance and to look at the management role in assuring information sharing on organizational strategies to achieve professionals’ engagement. The finding from the study that managerial competencies are positively associated to organizational performance. Future research calls for the expansion of the phenomena of employee engagement in healthcare to describe how leadership affects performance.

•Sihag, P., (2020) conducted an online questionnaire survey of 420 samples (middle-level information technology (IT) professionals) from different IT industry located in India to investigate whether perceived organizational support (POS) helps in mediating the effect of psychological capital (PsyCap) on employee engagement (EE). The findings of the study con?rmed the full mediating effect of POS on the PsyCap-EE relationship and demonstrated that employees with a higher level of PsyCap, contribute more positively to the POS level which further enhances the employee’s level of engagement at the workplace. Given that the study focused on middle-level IT professionals of the IT industry in India, the study results have limited general applicability. The author recommended performing similar studies with different types of industries and employees so that the ?ndings can be compared and common ?ndings can be identi?ed.

•Giménez-Espert, et al., (2020) aimed to examine the perception of COVID-19 by nurses, especially about measures, resources, and impact on their daily work. They also analyze these professionals’ psychosocial risks and the relationship between perception of COVID-19 and these risks. This article is important to my study because it gives the foundation of the issues that healthcare workers experience during a pandemic and strategies to increase engagement and psychological ownership of healthcare workers in the future. Given that one of the study’s limitations is the small number of participants, more exploration of the issue will be beneficial to healthcare workers and increase organizational performance as well as the quality of care. Also, the target population of the current study was only IT executives working at the middle level in Indian IT companies, therefore the study results have limited general applicability. The researchers recommended that performing similar studies with different types of industries and employees would be beneficial as the findings can be compared and common findings can be identified.

•Given that the emphasis on engagement originates from its expected impacts on organizational outcomes, additional research is recommended to analyze measures of those outcomes (e.g., patient satisfaction, lower readmission rates, lower mortality rates) that can shed light on the climate-engagement-performance relations (Ancarani, et al. 2019).

References

•Alshaabani A, Naz F, Magda R, Rudnák I. Impact of Perceived Organizational Support on OCB in the Time of COVID-19 Pandemic in Hungary: Employee Engagement and Affective Commitment as Mediators. Sustainability. 2021; 13(14):7800. https://doi.org/10.3390/su13147800.

•Ancarani, A., Mauro, C. D., Giammanco, M. D., & Giammanco, G. (2019). Work engagement in public hospitals: a social exchange approach. International Review of Public Administration, 23(1), 1229-4659. doi:https://doi.org/10.1080/12294659.2017.1412046

•Chen X, Liu M, Liu C, Ruan F, Yuan Y, Xiong C. Job Satisfaction and Hospital Performance Rated by Physicians in China: A Moderated Mediation Analysis on the Role of Income and Person–Organization Fit. International Journal of Environmental Research and Public Health. 2020; 17(16):5846. https://doi.org/10.3390/ijerph17165846

•Giménez-Espert, M., Prado-Gascó, V., & Soto-Rubio, A. (2020). Psychosocial Risks, Work Engagement, and Job Satisfaction of Nurses During COVID-19 Pandemic. Frontiers in public health, 8, 566896. https://doi.org/10.3389/fpubh.2020.566896

•Sihag, P. (2020), “The mediating role of perceived organizational support on psychological capital – employee engagement relationship: a study of Indian IT industry”, Journal of Indian Business Research, Vol. ahead-of-print No. ahead-of-print. https://doi.org/10.1108/JIBR-01-2019-0014

•Vainieri, M., Ferrè, F., Giacomelli, G., & Nuti, S. (2019). Explaining performance in health care: How and when top management competencies make the difference. Health care management review, 44(4), 306–317. https://doi.org/10.1097/HMR.0000000000000164 

use these gap articles

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https://journals.plos.org/plosone/article?id=10.1371/journal.pone.0256454

These are the terms we are defining

COVID-19 Pandemic: Billings J, et al, (2021) defined COVID-19 as a severe acute respiratory syndrome coronavirus 2 (SARS-CoV-2).

Employee Engagement: is the act of an employee emotionally connecting to the success of the organization (Macey, W., & Schneider, B., 2008)

Financial Reward:

Leadership Strategies

Organizational Performance

Patient Satisfaction

Psychological ownership: Psychological ownership is the ability of a person to take an ownership view of work-related tasks (Avey, Wernsing, & Palanski, 2012).