hand hygiene thatemphasized personal safety (“ hand hygiene prevents W r i t i n g

hand hygiene thatemphasized personal safety (“ hand hygiene prevents W r i t i n g

just do part 2 will do. The essay question. Similar to the past, pls ensure format and reference (5 reference) are included. -800 words

It’s Not All About Me: Motivating Hand Hygiene Among Health Care Professionals by

Focusing on Patients

Diseases often spread in hospitals because health care professionals fail to wash their hands.

Research suggests that to increase health and safety behaviours, it is important to highlight the

personal consequences for the actor. However, because people (and health care professionals

in particular) tend to be overconfident about personal immunity, the most effective messages

about hand hygiene may be those that highlight its consequences for other people. In two field

experiments in a hospital, we compared the effectiveness of signs about hand hygiene that

emphasized personal safety (“Hand hygiene prevents you from catching diseases”) or patient

safety (“Hand hygiene prevents patients from catching diseases”). We assessed hand hygiene

by measuring the amount of soap and hand-sanitizing gel used from dispensers (Experiment 1)

and conducting covert, independent observations of health care professionals’ hand-hygiene

behaviours (Experiment 2). Results showed that changing a single word in messages motivated

meaningful changes in behaviour: The hand hygiene of health care professionals increased

significantly when they were reminded of the implications for patients but not when they were

reminded of the implications for themselves.

Source: Grant, A. M., & Hofmann, D. A. (2011). It’s Not All About Me: Motivating Hand

Hygiene Among Health Care Professionals by Focusing on Patients. Psychological

Science, 22(12), 1494–1499. https://doi.org/10.1177/0956797611419172

Altruistic acts are guided by assumptions about the well-being of others. Evolutionary

psychology suggests that cooperative behaviours helped our ancestors survive under harsh

conditions. Author David Rakoff (2001) famously said, “Altruism is innate, but it’s not

instinctual. Everybody’s wired for it, but a switch has to be flipped.”

Analyse the extent to which you would agree that altruism signifies the desire to ensure the

good of others. Apply relevant positive psychological theories and findings to support your


Your discussion should address the following points:

1. The importance of altruism in our lives.

2. Whether recent research findings support Rakoff’s comment that altruism is something

innate but not instinctual.

3. Two ways in which we can “turn on” our “switch” to be more altruistic.

4. The relevance of altruism during a pandemic such as COVID-19.

(Word limit: 1000 words)

TMA Formatting Requirements

Margins: 1 inch (2.54 cm) margins on all sides (top, bottom, left, and right) of the page

Line spacing: Double-space the entire paper

Paragraph alignment: Align the text to the left and leave the right margin uneven

Paragraph indentation: Indent the first line of every paragraph 0.5 inch

Font: Use 12-point Times New Roman

Spelling: English (Singapore)

Word Limit

Please observe the word limit as writing succinctly is an important skill to acquire in academic

writing. All text (including in-text citations) is included in the word count except the reference

list, tables, figures, and appendices. Note that anything written beyond 10% of the word limit

will not be marked.

English Competency

English competency is an assessable component of all TMAs and 5% of the total marks for

each TMA have been allocated to this component. It is important that you write clearly and

accurately, using correct grammar, punctuation and spelling.


Follow the APA7 format as described in the “PSY Referencing Guide”. Appropriate in-text

citations and an accurately formatted Reference section are expected. FIVE (5) marks have

been allocated for this component. More information about formatting in APA7 can be found

in the APA website: https://doi.org/10.1177/0956797611419172

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