attended holy trinity catholic church W r i t i n g
Writing Prompt: John F. Kennedy’s 1961 Inaugural Address has long been praised for its rhetorical
richness. In a well-written essay, analyze how Kennedy uses rhetorical strategies to effectively
communicate his vision for America.
Friday, January 20, 1961
Background: Heavy snow fell the night before the inauguration, but thoughts about cancelling
the plans were overruled. The election of 1960 had been close, and the Democratic Senator
from Massachusetts was eager to gather support for his agenda. He attended Holy Trinity
Catholic Church in Georgetown that morning before joining President Eisenhower to travel to the
Capitol. The Congress had extended the East Front, and the inaugural platform spanned the new
addition. The oath of office was administered by Chief Justice Earl Warren. Robert Frost read one
of his poems at the ceremony.
Vice President Johnson, Mr. Speaker, Mr. Chief Justice, President Eisenhower, Vice President Nixon, President Truman,
reverend clergy, fellow citizens, we observe today not a victory of party, but a celebration of freedom—symbolizing
an end, as well as a beginning—signifying renewal, as well as change. For I have sworn before you and Almighty God
the same solemn oath our forebears prescribed nearly a century and three quarters ago. 1
The world is very different now. For man holds in his mortal hands the power to abolish all forms of human poverty
and all forms of human life. And yet the same revolutionary beliefs for which our forebears fought are still at issue
around the globe—the belief that the rights of man come not from the generosity of the state, but from the hand of
We dare not forget today that we are the heirs of that first revolution. Let the word go forth from this time and
place, to friend and foe alike, that the torch has been passed to a new generation of Americans—born in this
century, tempered by war, disciplined by a hard and bitter peace, proud of our ancient heritage—and unwilling to
witness or permit the slow undoing of those human rights to which this Nation has always been committed, and to
which we are committed today at home and around the world.
Let every nation know, whether it wishes us well or ill, that we shall pay any price, bear any burden, meet any
hardship, support any friend, oppose any foe, in order to assure the survival and the success of liberty.
This much we pledge—and more. 5
To those old allies whose cultural and spiritual origins we share, we pledge the loyalty of faithful friends. United,
there is little we cannot do in a host of cooperative ventures. Divided, there is little we can do—for we dare not meet
a powerful challenge at odds and split asunder.
To those new States whom we welcome to the ranks of the free, we pledge our word that one form of colonial
control shall not have passed away merely to be replaced by a far more iron tyranny. We shall not always expect to
find them supporting our view. But we shall always hope to find them strongly supporting their own freedom—and
to remember that, in the past, those who foolishly sought power by riding the back of the tiger ended up inside.
To those peoples in the huts and villages across the globe struggling to break the bonds of mass misery, we pledge
our best efforts to help them help themselves, for whatever period is required—not because the Communists may
be doing it, not because we seek their votes, but because it is right. If a free society cannot help the many who are
poor, it cannot save the few who are rich.
To our sister republics south of our border, we offer a special pledge—to convert our good words into good
deeds—in a new alliance for progress—to assist free men and free governments in casting off the chains of poverty.
But this peaceful revolution of hope cannot become the prey of hostile powers. Let all our neighbors know that we
shall join with them to oppose aggression or subversion anywhere in the Americas. And let every other power know
that this Hemisphere intends to remain the master of its own house.
To that world assembly of sovereign states, the United Nations, our last best hope in an age where the instruments
of war have far outpaced the instruments of peace, we renew our pledge of support—to prevent it from becoming
merely a forum for invective—to strengthen its shield of the new and the weak—and to enlarge the area in which its
writ may run.
Finally, to those nations who would make themselves our adversary, we offer not a pledge but a request: that both
sides begin anew the quest for peace, before the dark powers of destruction unleashed by science engulf all
humanity in planned or accidental self-destruction.
We dare not tempt them with weakness. For only when our arms are sufficient beyond doubt can we be certain
beyond doubt that they will never be employed.
But neither can two great and powerful groups of nations take comfort from our present course—both sides
overburdened by the cost of modern weapons, both rightly alarmed by the steady spread of the deadly atom, yet
both racing to alter that uncertain balance of terror that stays the hand of mankind’s final war.
So let us begin anew—remembering on both sides that civility is not a sign of weakness, and sincerity is always
subject to proof. Let us never negotiate out of fear. But let us never fear to negotiate.
Let both sides explore what problems unite us instead of belaboring those problems which divide us. 15
Let both sides, for the first time, formulate serious and precise proposals for the inspection and control of
arms—and bring the absolute power to destroy other nations under the absolute control of all nations.
Let both sides seek to invoke the wonders of science instead of its terrors. Together let us explore the stars, conquer
the deserts, eradicate disease, tap the ocean depths, and encourage the arts and commerce.
Let both sides unite to heed in all corners of the earth the command of Isaiah—to “undo the heavy burdens … and
to let the oppressed go free.”
And if a beachhead of cooperation may push back the jungle of suspicion, let both sides join in creating a new
endeavor, not a new balance of power, but a new world of law, where the strong are just and the weak secure and
the peace preserved.
All this will not be finished in the first 100 days. Nor will it be finished in the first 1,000 days, nor in the life of this
Administration, nor even perhaps in our lifetime on this planet. But let us begin.
In your hands, my fellow citizens, more than in mine, will rest the final success or failure of our course. Since this
country was founded, each generation of Americans has been summoned to give testimony to its national loyalty.
The graves of young Americans who answered the call to service surround the globe.
Now the trumpet summons us again—not as a call to bear arms, though arms we need; not as a call to battle,
though embattled we are—but a call to bear the burden of a long twilight struggle, year in and year out, “rejoicing in
hope, patient in tribulation”—a struggle against the common enemies of man: tyranny, poverty, disease, and war
Can we forge against these enemies a grand and global alliance, North and South, East and West, that can assure a
more fruitful life for all mankind? Will you join in that historic effort?
In the long history of the world, only a few generations have been granted the role of defending freedom in its hour
of maximum danger. I do not shrink from this responsibility—I welcome it. I do not believe that any of us would
exchange places with any other people or any other generation. The energy, the faith, the devotion which we bring
to this endeavor will light our country and all who serve it—and the glow from that fire can truly light the world.
And so, my fellow Americans: ask not what your country can do for you—ask what you can do for your country. 25
My fellow citizens of the world: ask not what America will do for you, but what together we can do for the freedom
Finally, whether you are citizens of America or citizens of the world, ask of us the same high standards of strength
and sacrifice which we ask of you. With a good conscience our only sure reward, with history the final judge of our
deeds, let us go forth to lead the land we love, asking His blessing and His help, but knowing that here on earth
God’s work must truly be our own