air particles travel longer distances H e a l t h M e d i c a l
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Diseases are transmitted person to person through direct and indirect contact. Direct transmission is described as infectious agent passed from reservoir to susceptible host. Most diseases are commonly spread through direct person to person contact and occurs when a person infected touches or exchanges body fluids with another person. Sexually transmitted diseases are often spread via direct person to person contact. The second type of direct contact is droplet spread. Droplets are spread when an infected person sprays a large number of aerosols by coughing, sneezing and talking. Droplets will typically fall to the ground with a few feet so the infected has to be in close proximity to the susceptible host. Viruses like whooping cough can be spread via droplet spread. Indirect transmission is described as infectious agent passed from reservoir through air particles, vehicles and vectors to susceptible host. Air borne transmission is a type of indirect contact through which air particles travel longer distances and remain suspended for longer period of time. Measles can be transmitted simply by entering a room in which an infected person departed. Vehicles or contaminated objects refers to transmission that occurs when the infectious agent is spread through food, water and inanimate objects. Hepatitis A can be transmitted via food. Animals can also be a reservoir and a type of transmission that occurs when an animal bites or scratches the host. Parasites can be transferred through the handling of cat liter and can be very dangerous to pregnant and immunosuppressed hosts. Vector borne illnesses are transmitted through insect bites like mosquitos, fleas and ticks. West Nile virus is a good example of a vector borne infectious agent. Lastly transmission of an infectious agents can be related to environmental reservoirs by which include contaminated soil, water and vegetation. Hookworms can be transmitted via contaminated soil.